Bilirubinometer often acquire medical institutions, or parents of young children. This specificity is explained by the fact that it can be used to accurately assess fetal hemoglobin in newborns. And if adults manage with standard biochemical dough, then it can be difficult for babies to pass it.
The fact that the fetal hemoglobin differs from the adult analogue adds to the difficulties. In this case, the human body is configured in such a way as to produce "normal hemoglobin", destroying its fetal analogue. As a result, the production of a large amount of free bilirubin becomes a side effect.
The transformation of the form is carried out in the liver cells, which do not always have time to cope with the tasks. In the saddest scenario, jaundice begins to develop rapidly in babies. It is physiological or pathological.
Laboratory at home
For newborns, jaundice is a fairly common pathology, but in order to neutralize its effects, doctors will first need to figure out the source of the deviation. Here, without a set of laboratory tests can not do.
The most important algorithm is the monitoring of direct and indirect bilirubin in the blood. If several years ago it was necessary to go to the hospital and donate blood for a survey of this kind, today it is enough to use a digital device to calculate this component of the body.
Its price is not affordable for many patients who have to monitor the presented component on an ongoing basis. Because of this, victims still have to seek help from clinics or specialized laboratories. But instead of donating blood, the examination is less painful.
You will need a bilirubinometer, named after the component itself, which needs to be measured, not only to diagnose jaundice in newborns.
It is also used for extensive use. Even emergency medicine got into the list of possible exploitation, which should be provided after the diagnosis of alcohol, drug or drug intoxication.
No less often, doctors using medical records of people who suffer from hepatitis or various abnormalities in the functioning of the liver resort to the help of a compact device. No wonder that the device is attracted even at the preparatory stage in surgery. There is a preparation for a liver transplant.
Obstetrics stand out, where it will be necessary to reveal the hidden course of hemolytic disease, to which newborns are prone. Norms and indicators of deviations in the measurements already announced by the specialist who conducted the study.
The entire assessment process is based on the chemical characteristics of bilirubin, which is not able to dissolve in the blood itself. First, the cells have to try to turn it into a soluble form. To do this, the body will need to use albumin. So called special proteins.
Their main goal is aiding in the transportation of bilirubin, which still remains intact. This version of the item is called free. To qualitatively transform it, proteins have to transport substances to the liver cells.
Free bilirubin, despite its importance in the dissolved form, before it enters the liver is toxic to all other cells. Only after being sent to the liver is it formatted into a safe form, representing direct bilirubin. The latter is easily dissolved in water, actively filtered by the kidneys and excreted naturally through urine. But for its natural neutralization, the substance must first react with glucuronic acid.
How are the measurements?
Equipment designed to assess the level of bilirubin can often be found in obstetrics or ordinary clinical laboratories in hospitals with inpatient units.
Initially, laboratory technicians used a standard approach involving the reaction of van den Berg with reagents. For the experiment had to do blood sampling from the venous vessel.
After the medical field had advanced far ahead, experts began to use reagent-free direct photometry of plasma. Here the dominant place is occupied by the classic bilirubinometer. Due to the capabilities of such a device, it turns out to reveal the optical density of blood plasma using the basics of photometry. For testing, waves 492 and 523 nm are attracted.
The collected data is automatically reformatted into concentration information. Here the main advantage lies in the fact that consumers do not have to pay extra reagents or dispensers.
The non-reagent approach is especially relevant in the case when the victim is only suspected or has already identified moderate and severe hyperbilirubinemia. Such illnesses include repeated laboratory tests without fail.
Later, experts began to use the transcutaneous method, which today is widespread in pediatrics and neonatology. This method belongs to the category of non-invasive measures, which is used through the skin without the need to violate the holistic shell of the skin.
Analyzers are portable devices designed to determine the concentration of bilirubin without the need to get the newborn from the incubator. Instead, a sensitive device sensor should be applied to the forehead and upper part of the sternum of the baby.
After activation of the system, the process of measuring total bilirubin of blood starts, which is based on the attraction of waves of two lengths: 492 and 523 nm. Presented diagnostics called screening. Its important advantages, in addition to non-invasiveness, are painlessness and the absence of restrictions on the number of procedures.
Reagent-free and screening methods involve the involvement of bilirubinometers, which simplifies both the diagnostic measure itself and the assessment of the state of the studied composition.