Very often, moles do not bother people, and many want to get rid of them just because of the aesthetic appearance. Not everyone knows that a harmless mole can cause the development of a malignant process in the body.
One of the most popular methods for removing moles is cryodestruction. The procedure is carried out using liquid nitrogen, that is, under the influence of cold, the mole is destroyed. Cold reaches minus 196 degrees. It is this procedure that contributes to the rapid freezing and destruction of any organic formation.
To date, cryodestruction is used not only to remove moles, but also for other formations on the skin. It is used in pediatric, otolaryngological, urological and gynecological fields. Also, its high popularity is affected by the cost. Compared to other methods, it is available to everyone.
What happens to moles when exposed to low temperature?
Although we are not physicists, we know that in order to freeze water, you need a zero temperature. And what will happen to water if it falls under the influence of minus 190 degrees? It crystallizes, that is, the cells and intercellular space undergo a dehydration process. In the same period, the electrolyte and metabolite level approaches the toxic threshold, which allows the destruction of cell membranes.
After this, polypeptide molecules are irreversibly changed, protein and lipid structural compounds are destroyed. The area of the skin that is affected is susceptible to vascular collapse, that is, small capillaries begin to clog.
If you speak a simple and understandable language, then under the influence of low temperatures, serious changes occur that contribute to the cessation of cell function. As a result of this, the tissues that were formed as a result of the vital activity of such cells gradually begin to die.
When is mole removal just necessary?
As we said above, mainly patients seek such help in order to improve their appearance and gain peace of mind. Sometimes moles in a prominent place bring people, especially women, special discomfort.
But there are situations when the removal of formations is simply necessary. If you notice at least one of the signs that we will describe below, then immediately seek help from a qualified specialist, otherwise a malignant process may begin.
So, a serious indication for the removal of moles are:
- sizes, shapes, colors and textures of moles that change from time to time;
- sudden aching or paroxysmal pain at the site of localization of the nevus;
- blood discharge.
Remember that a greater effect of cryodestruction can be achieved when the mole has not reached a large size and has not penetrated deep into the upper layer of the epidermis. If the education has gone far, it is worth using another method, for example, a surgical or radio wave method of removing moles.
The process of removing moles with liquid nitrogen
In medical practice, there are two main types of removal of such formations. The first is to apply a cotton swab, which is pre-impregnated with liquid nitrogen. This procedure is suitable for those whose moles are only on the surface layer of the skin, not in the inside. The tampon settles for about three minutes. During this time, the area of skin becomes numb, and the mole itself dies.
If the rod of the mole penetrated deep into the epidermis of the skin, then the specialist instead of a cotton swab uses a special device called a cryodestructor. During the procedure, a special needle is introduced under the skin (there may be several), which is connected to a thermometer, and already through this needle the device delivers liquid nitrogen. A thermometer is necessary in order to monitor the temperature and, if necessary, stop the process.
The process of removal is short-lived, it all depends on the size and number of moles. The procedure takes no more than three minutes and is absolutely painless, so the patient does not need anesthesia.
What can be the complications after cryodestruction?
By itself, the removal is fast enough, but the process of tissue repair is much longer.
At the end of the procedure, the area of the skin where the mole was, slightly hurts and becomes hard. In rare cases, the patient may experience a slight tingling and burning sensation.
During the first 24 hours, the inflammatory process begins. Do not worry, this is normal. It’s just that the skin gets stressed after the mass death of cells. Then the place where the mole used to be begins to become covered with a crust (granulation tissue).
Already on the 10th day, the epithelialization process begins, that is, new skin forms at the site of the lesion. This lasts no more than one and a half months. Already after this time, full-fledged skin will form at the site of birthmark removal.
As for the side effects, it is possible that the patient will have a scar or scar at the place of removal. It depends on what size the mole was, and on the elasticity of the skin.
Rehabilitation and recovery period
In most cases, rehabilitation lasts approximately two months. During this period of time, the patient may experience unpleasant and painful sensations.
In the place where the nevus used to be located, a crust appears. This is normal. It protects the wound from infection. The main thing to remember is that the crust should fall off by itself. If it is torn off, a scar or scar may form. Also try not to let the crust fall under water. Categorically, you can not smear with various creams or lotions in order to achieve quick healing. The only thing that doctors allow is to treat the wound with potassium permanganate, so the crust dries faster.
If after the procedure you notice that you periodically have blood and purulent discharge from the wound, the skin around you turns red, swollen and inflamed, and your body temperature periodically rises, then consult a doctor immediately. The above symptoms may indicate the development of a pathological process.
Within two weeks, the crust should fall away, and in its place appears a speck of pink, this is young skin. Over time, the color of the skin will restore.